# Normalize

Return a normal number `y` and exponent `exp` satisfying `x = y * 2^exp`.

## Usage

``````var normalizef = require( '@stdlib/number/float32/base/normalize' );
``````

#### normalizef( [out,] x )

Returns a normal number `y` and exponent `exp` satisfying `x = y * 2^exp`.

``````var toFloat32 = require( '@stdlib/number/float64/base/to-float32' );

var out = normalizef( toFloat32( 1.401e-45 ) );
// returns [ 1.1754943508222875e-38, -23 ]
``````

By default, the function returns `y` and `exp` as a two-element `array`.

``````var toFloat32 = require( '@stdlib/number/float64/base/to-float32' );
var pow = require( '@stdlib/math/base/special/pow' );

var out = normalizef( toFloat32( 1.401e-45 ) );
// returns [ 1.1754943508222875e-38, -23 ]

var y = out[ 0 ];
var exp = out[ 1 ];

var bool = ( y*pow(2, exp) === toFloat32(1.401e-45) );
// returns true
``````

To avoid unnecessary memory allocation, the function supports providing an output (destination) object.

``````var toFloat32 = require( '@stdlib/number/float64/base/to-float32' );
var Float32Array = require( '@stdlib/array/float32' );

var out = new Float32Array( 2 );

var v = normalizef( out, toFloat32( 1.401e-45 ) );
// returns <Float32Array>[ 1.1754943508222875e-38, -23 ]

var bool = ( v === out );
// returns true
``````

The function expects a finite, non-zero single-precision floating-point number `x`. If `x == 0`,

``````var out = normalizef( 0.0 );
// returns [ 0.0, 0 ];
``````

If `x` is either positive or negative `infinity` or `NaN`,

``````var PINF = require( '@stdlib/constants/math/float32-pinf' );
var NINF = require( '@stdlib/constants/math/float32-ninf' );

var out = normalizef( PINF );
// returns [ PINF, 0 ]

out = normalizef( NINF );
// returns [ NINF, 0 ]

out = normalizef( NaN );
// returns [ NaN, 0 ]
``````

## Notes

• While the function accepts higher precision floating-point numbers, beware that providing such numbers can be a source of subtle bugs as the relation `x = y * 2^exp` may not hold.

## Examples

``````var randu = require( '@stdlib/random/base/randu' );
var round = require( '@stdlib/math/base/special/round' );
var pow = require( '@stdlib/math/base/special/pow' );
var toFloat32 = require( '@stdlib/number/float64/base/to-float32' );
var normalizef = require( '@stdlib/number/float32/base/normalize' );

var frac;
var exp;
var x;
var v;
var i;

// Generate denormalized single-precision floating-point numbers and then normalize them...
for ( i = 0; i < 100; i++ ) {
frac = randu() * 10.0;
exp = 38 + round( randu()*6.0 );
x = frac * pow( 10.0, -exp );
x = toFloat32( x );
v = normalizef( x );
console.log( '%d = %d * 2^%d = %d', x, v[0], v[1], v[0]*pow(2.0, v[1]) );
}
``````